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Health impact of air pollution to children was studied in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during the last twenty years. The research program analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Pregnancy outcome study was followed on newborns delivered in the period 1994-1998, proved the increase of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by PM10 and c-PAHs (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first gestational moths. In the cohort of newborns was followed morbidity up to the age of 10 years. In preschool children was observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs to develop bronchitis related to genetic polymorphism. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is specific by air pollution from industrial by high concentration of c-PAHs. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. Similarly, a different DNA methylation pattern was observed in children from the two regions. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in two locations with different level of pollution: Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were higher in the cord blood in Ceske Budejovice vs. Prague. Studying gene expression profiles in the cord blood in Ceske Budejovice were down-regulated biological processes related to immune and defense response. Studies of transcriptome indicate a new knowledge about a possible effect of air pollution to children health. Surprisingly, the monthly exposure to B[a]P > 2.8 ng/m3 increased incidence of IUGR as well as the deregulation of genes in newborns. Therefore we can propose the monthly concentrations B[a]P > 2.8 ng/m3 as the health risk for developing fetus. Another risk factor is the oxidative stress, which was suggested to be one of the mechanisms responsible for adverse pregnancy outcomes. DNA damage (8-oxodG) and lipid peroxidation were proved to be biomarkers of oxidative stress in preterm low-birth infants. We should try to learn what is the impact of those data for the child development, specifically the effect of c-PAHs and PM2.5 exposures to respiratory morbidity. In our studies air pollution significantly affect children especially the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk using biomarkers. Supported by GA CR P30113-13458S.
Radim J., Sram ( presenting )
Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
Contribution proposed for:   oral presentation
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